Erik Brattberg skriver i Global Politician om hotet från hemodlade jihadister:
When accounting for why the small prosperous and traditionally peaceful Nordic countries have become so susceptible to this new type of homegrown terrorism in the post-9/11 security climate, three general patterns stand out. First, Denmark, Norway and Sweden all have considerable Muslim minorities. Large-scale immigration begun after the Second World War when the Nordic countries opened up their borders for labor immigrants from southern Europe, the Balkans and Turkey. During the 1980s and 90’s, a new wave of economic, political and religious refugees arrived from the Middle East (mainly Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Turkey and the Palestinian territories) and the horn of Africa. Today there are an estimated 275.000 practicing Muslims in Denmark, 76.000 in Norway and over 300.000 in Sweden.I New York har polisen precis släppt en imponerande rapport (pdf) om hur NYPD ser på homegrowns. Den är på nittio sidor och inte helt lätt att sammanfatta, men man kan säga att de har identifierat ett mönster - fyra steg i radikaliseringsprocessen - som de kan använda som utgångspunkt för spaningen. Profilering, anklagar vissa religiösa intressegrupper, men det stämmer nog inte. Nyttig läsning för varje polis och underrätelseman är det i vilket fall. Törs man hoppas att några ex hamnar hos Säpo och Must?
Furthermore, the often poorly integrated immigrant communities have systematically become dependent on government subsidies as their chief means of income. This has a resulted in a high unemployment level for non-European immigrants. In 2001, persons born outside of Sweden on average received seven times more in social security assistance than Swedish-born nationals. The figures for Denmark and Norway are close to those of Sweden. Whereas the policies of the welfare state in the short term can reduce the economic poverty of low-income takers and thus have a pacifying effect on unassimilated immigrants, the same policies tend, in the long run, to create a dependence on the state which in effect can lead to further alienation from the indigenous society.
Lastly, terrorists and their indigenous sympathizers have been successful in exploiting the benefits of the Scandinavian open liberal democracies with their modern infrastructure offerings. These enlightened and sophisticated systems have enabled substate perpetrators in the name of "higher principles" to engage in propaganda activities, secure safe-havens, raise funds, purchase weapons and provide logistical support to overseas terrorist organizations.
In the wake of September 11, the Scandinavian governments worked hard to address the terrorism threat and the radicalization of its Muslim immigrants. Despite proven progress, more policy and law-making attention are still required in conjunction with stronger efforts to increase the public awareness over the challenge posed by Islamic radicalism. Despite Islamic radicalization being an equally serious threat in Scandinavia as it is in many other European countries, many Scandinavians unfortunately still view their countries as immune.
The Blotter skrev om rapporten:
The report by the NYPD intelligence division, "Radicalization in the West and the Homegrown Threat," plots "the trajectory of radicalization" and tracks the path of a non-radicalized individual to an individual with the willingness to commit an act of terror, multiple sources say.Uppdatering:
"The threat is real; this is not some bogey man we are creating here. There are individuals who are proselytizing, inciting angry young men to go down this path," said Jenkins, who reviewed and contributed to the NYPD report.
The report identifies mosques, bookstores, cafes, prisons and flop houses as what it calls "radicalization incubators" that provide "extremist fodder or fuel for radicalization."
Terrorismforskare, den titel jag först gav Erik Brattberg, ser ut att ha varit ett för starkt ord, skriver Bulten i Bo. Så jag ändrade.